Carbon footprints have emerged as the No.1 concern on the long list of environmental and social governance (ESG) issues salmon famers face, and with increasing pressure from buyers, suppliers, consumers and lenders to act, the industry has begun to evaluate where and how it can reduce its emissions.

That reduction, however, is easier said than done, particularly for an industry built on the promise of freshly harvested product delivered to retailers' "just-in-time" supply chains. The smooth delivery of fresh salmon, with the notable exception of Norwegian product headed into the EU market, is heavily dependent on air cargo.