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Coldwater shrimp forum: Royal Greenland CEO urges 'we must change our way or perish'

Marketing, emerging markets, resources are in focus of this year's ICWPF in London. Check back here to get all the news from the conference.

Nov. 21. 5.27 p.m. G.M.T.

An industry in change

"We've been talking about change for a number of years," said Simon Jarding of Royal Greenland, in conclusion of today's forum.

"It's about time we stopped talking about it -- it's time to do something about it," he said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 5.21 p.m. G.M.T

‘We must change our ways or perish’

When considering the future outlook of the coldwater shrimp market, the industry must look beyond future supply and future demand and consider its own role.

“We are not simply bystanders, what we do can impact what happens,” said Mikael Thinghuus, CEO of Royal Greenland.

It makes sense for companies to be vertically integrated, he said, to be close to the product at one end and close to the consumer at the other.

But there are markets “where we need stronger positioning,” he said.

“We need to redefine what coldwater shrimp is for, and need to find a market for ourselves.”

According to Thinghuus, the industry is a “prisoner of its own perceptions” of what quality means.

Instead “we need to put ourselves into the mind of the consumer, figure out what value means for the consumer,” he said.

“Each of us must change our ways or perish, and Royal Greenland certainly will try to change,” he said.

Since its peak the coldwater shrimp supply has dropped 33 percent from 450,000 metric tons to 300,000 metric tons.

Of the total catch, Canada and Greenland make up 85 percent, Thinghuus added.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 5.18 p.m. G.M.T

China’s getting richer

There are now two clear markets for coldwater shrimp, said Mikael Thinghuus, CEO of Royal Greenland.

First, there is the established market such as the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, with high penetration and wide distribution.

Then there are the emerging markets such as China and Russia, he said, which have low penetration, and the distribution is less mature.

However, shrimp are generally sold in markets with high fish consumption he said, referring in particular to the Chinese market.

China is getting richer, he said. And as people there are getting wealthier, they are spending more of this increased income on seafood. China now has a per capita consumption of 31.2 kg per person per year.

“So there is limited supply and fundamentally a strong global demand,” Thinghuus said.

But while there are of course issues such as consumer education and better marketing, there is also a question of quality, he said.

“We need a good quality product before we can start marketing it," he said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 5.14 p.m. G.M.T

Greenland’s only industry

“Greenland has two types of income: fishing and money from Denmark,” according to Mikael Thinghuus, CEO of Royal Greenland.

Essentially, fishing is Greenland’s only industry, Thinghuus said, accounting for around 95 percent of the country’s exports.

Of that, Royal Greenland accounts for half, he said.

“When we do well the country does well, when we do badly we break the back of Greenland,” said Thinghuus.

“Obviously coldwater prawns are important to us.”

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 4.58 p.m. G.M.T

The China gamble is on

Coldwater shrimp suppliers into China are approaching an annual "precarious situation," with prices and sales expected to drop just following the Chinese New Year purchases, Brian McNamara, owner of Newfound Resources, said.

"The big gamble is on," he told the ICWPF audience.

This year suppliers saw prices rising to $5.50, $5.60 and most recently to $5.70 for 120/150 shell-on.

But now "large orders have stopped somewhat prematurely," McNamara said. "Most inquiries are for small orders and there is a tremendous price pressure on shell-on. There is speculation, opportunistic buying going on.

"Some suppliers prepared to accept deep discount. But what do you do? Wait for market to settle or chase falling prices?" he said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 4.56 p.m. G.M.T.

New focus on UK foodservice

The UK foodservice industry could see a change for the better next year and in 2015. After years of sluggish sales this could mean a new opportunity for coldwater shrimp, Adam Swan, category procurement director at £3 billion turnover foodservice supplier Brakes.

"We’ve had tough times in terms of volume-growth but we should come out of that in the next year and certainly in 2015," he said.

For coldwater shrimp to ride along with that recovery, things will have to change, Swan said, citing a 30 percent drop of coldwater shrimp sales at Brakes.

Especially lunch menus show opportunities for the species, he said, with almost 40 percent of dishes adaptable to coldwater shrimp. " That's a massive opportunity there but we’re missing out.

"What our market has been lacking is a real focus on consumers who like it. We need to find a new way for them to pick it up on the menu again," he said. "The industry does not give this incentive at the moment."

Ease of preparation, great portion control, familiarity with product, the health aspect, sustainability and consumer popularity are benefits suppliers should work with and integrate in their product offerings.

Innovative marketing is key, he said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 4.45 p.m. G.M.T

Bigger is better

Coldwater shrimp are thought of as the “poorer cousin” to warmwater shrimp in Britain because the industry has failed to educate consumers on the difference between the products, said Karen Galloway, head of marketing at UK industry body Seafish.

Consumers do not know there is a difference between coldwater and warmwater shrimp and instead lump them together as one category. In turn consumers are consistently “disappointed” by their experience with coldwater shrimp, when they try to prepare them in the same way as warmwater shrimp.

In the United Kingdom, consumers primarily distinguish between the two products by size rather than where they are from, and on this basis, “bigger is always better.”

As a result warmwater shrimp is the category consumers want and against which coldwater shrimp are always benchmarked. Unlike coldwater shrimp, the warmwater products are considered “filling, versatile, good quality, and have a better texture.”

“The industry needs to shake the image of coldwater shrimp as being the poorer cousin to larger king prawns.”

-- Dominic Welling


Nov.21, 4.34 p.m. G.M.T.

Make wild shrimp the star of the show

In consumer’s eyes coldwater shrimp do not stand out as anything special, so how does the industry challenge these perceptions?

There are a number of reasons hindering the growth of the UK coldwater shrimp market, according to Karen Galloway, head of marketing at Seafish.

Primarily, consumers do not know what to do with them, she said. They feel restricted as to what dishes they can make with them, and cook them in the same way they do warmwater shrimp.

Because coldwater shrimp are not supposed to be cooked like that, there is no wonder consumers are disappointed by the end result, she said, but they do not know any better.

“The industry needs to get together and work to educate consumers on how they can use coldwater prawns, they have to use more consistent labeling on products to make things less confusing for consumers, and explain the difference between warmwater and coldwater prawns,” Galloway said.

This will not be done just with an expensive advertising campaign, but is more a question of an industry wide “engagement strategy” which will promote coldwater shrimp and their diversity and give the consumer a reason to revisit the category.

“There needs to be a step change in consumer perceptions of the coldwater shrimp category, so there needs to be a number of initiatives to educate the consumer of the possibilities of coldwater shrimp, chefs need to be educated so in turn it will filter through to the end consumer.

There are a number of ways to use them, but it is driven by food service, which influences consumer behavior, so the trade side of the market needs to be educated first.

The industry needs to create “a buzz and excitement” around the sector to get back on consumers radar, Galloway said.

At the moment there is no compelling motivation for consumers to buy coldwater shrimp, but they need to see that coldwater shrimp can be the star of the show.

The industry should play to its strengths, and show coldwater shrimp as what they are: “quick and easy, healthy, and no fuss.”

“Don’t compete with warmwater shrimp, but pull the coldwater shrimp away as a separate category in its own right.

“There needs to be a different thinking process, a step change in attitudes, the industry needs to explore opportunities, and there needs to be education and training. This needs to be a category approach rather than a product approach,” Galloway said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 3.03 p.m. G.M.T.

British coldwater challenges

The coldwater shrimp industry must come together and develop a common market approach and marketing strategy to boost sales in Britain, urged Jonathan Hodgson, commercial director at Labeyrie-owned Lyons Seafood, during his presentation at ICWPF.

Wild shrimp's "big challenge" is to break out from its more traditional image and attract younger consumers, he said. But this will only work if the industry teams up and pushes together into the same direction.

The UK wild shrimp market is currently worth £74 million, accounting for 15 percent of the total UK shellfish market, which is value at £500 million. Warmwater shrimp in comparison are worth £252 million, and have a 51 percent share of the total shellfish market, Hodgson said, citing recent Nielsen data.

"Coldwater prawns appeal to an older, more traditional but less affluent consumer who use them in more classic recipes," he said. Warmwater shrimp, on the other hand, appeal to a younger and more contemporary and affluent consumers.

"Reduced penetration and frequency purchase are the key challenge for prawns, but especially for coldwater prawns."

In the short term, chilled is the key growth area and should be the main area of focus, he said. Today, the chilled wild shrimp market is worth £48 million and is growing at a rate of 9.9 percent. The frozen segment is worth £26 million and declining 10.3 percent.

The opportunity now is to capitalize on the current lack of availability of farmed shrimp.

In addition, "it’s imperative that we all understand CWP in the UK are all bought on price. We need to manage inflation as we can," he said.

The medium to long-term challenges are greater, and can only be solved by attracting younger consumers.

"We need to try and develop a marketing solution," he said, adding only some years ago warmwater shrimp had zero market share and are now "massive."

"The only way we can do that is for the industry coming together and to develop a common market approach," he said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21 1.30 p.m. G.M.T.

Taking the Beaujolais Nouveau approach to cod

Bizarrely at a forum on coldwater shrimp, Jack Robert Moller, UK director of the Norwegian Seafood Council (NSC), took to the stage to tell delegates about the skrei market.

Moller said there were many similarities between the two sectors, and explained Norway’s marketing tactics for the species of cod.

Skrei is “Norwegian cod at its prime,” Moller said, and the NSC was focused on promoting the fish as a high quality, seasonal product. This is what he calls taking the “Beaujolais Nouveau approach.”

The biggest market for skrei at the moment is Spain, which imported around 2,200 tons of fresh skrei between January and April this year. This is expected to hit nearly 3,000 tons by 2013, Moller said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21 1.14 p.m. G.M.T.

Swedes biggest consumers of wild shrimp

The market in Sweden still has the highest consumption per capita of coldwater shrimp at approximately 2 kilos per person, said Jens Moller, partner at GEMBA Seafood Consulting.

The market is demanding fresh and hand peeled coldwater shrimp in particular, and the price of this segment is high, he said.

Conversely, the retail market for warmwater shrimp in Sweden is “dead” due to a general concern for environmental impact from the production as well as food safety issues.

Additionally, the coldwater shrimp market makes up 10 percent of the total shrimp market, with about 5 percent of this going into the United Kingdom, Moller said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21 1.01 p.m. G.M.T.

Coldwater shrimp trade flows on a downward trend

The coldwater shrimp trade flows in the first half of the year showed a “downward tendency” compared with the same period in 2012, although this seems to be changing in the second part of 2013, according to Jens Moller partner at GEMBA Seafood Consulting.

In the short term there has been a reduction of exports from Canada to the United Kingdom with 700 metric tons, a reduction in exports from Iceland to the United Kingdom with 1,200 metric tons, and a reduction in exports from Canada to Denmark with 800 metric tons.

Meanwhile, exports from Denmark to United Kingdom reduced with 950 metric tons, to Sweden reduced with 800 metric tons, and to Germany reduced with 1,550 metric tons.

Imports from Greenland to Denmark, however are stable at around 9,700 metric tons, Moller said.

Meanwhile, the new tariff system in 2013 has minimized speculation due to its capacity and made the market situation smoother “without hoarding and the well known ‘stop/go’ effect” which has taken place for many years, he said.

In 2012, the EU tariff free quota of peeled and boiled coldwater shrimp was 20,000 metric tons and ran out in August. In 2013, however the quota seems to have enough capacity for end use demand, he said.

Next year this is expected to be similar to 2013 and the EU tariff free quota of peeled and boiled coldwater shrimp is set at 30,000 metric tons.

However the new free trade agreement between Canada and the EU scheduled for 2015 is expected to create a new situation in the market, and will be interesting to watch, said Moller.

Elsewhere, the new development status of some big warmwater shrimp producing countries (Thailand and Ecuador) will create higher prices on warmwater shrimp in the EU due to higher import tariffs.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21 12.31 p.m. G.M.T.

Russia -- a growth market?

Coldwater's growth potential in Russia is tremendous, Georgiy Guminskiy, seafood category leader at Uhrenholt, told the audience at ICWPF on Thursday, but challenges remain.

Wild-caught shrimp take a market share of 59 percent, or 35,967 metric tons, while farmed shrimp account for the rest, coming to a volume of 24.731 metric tons in 2012.

About 90 percent of the coldwater shrimp are sold as shell-on IQF (bulk and retail pack, mainly declared as 70/90 and 90/120). The rest is sold as cooked and peeled (C&P) IQF 150/250, 250/350, 300, 500 in retail packs.

"The Russian market is changing and developing, but there are real challenges," Guminskiy said.

The biggest issues are "confusion on glazing and sizing", a complicated customs and veterinary systems, and logistical and cold chain challenges due to the long distances in Russia.

"The unbroken cold chain is the real problem in Russia, in both retail and foodservice," he said. In addition, consumers are still not very knowledgeable on shrimp and seafood in general, despite a trend towards "wealthier and healthier" food, and eco-labels such as the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) are completely unknown.

But at the same time the opportunities are growing, especially for C&P. "The market is looking for something new, as it’s tired to only see shell-on," Guminskiy told the audience.

With the price gap between warmwater and coldwater shrimp closing up -- he reckons it now stands at about 30 percent compared to 150 percent price difference only a few years ago -- opportunities for product development and innovation is growing.

The government is also driving the consumption of seafood and has launched at national program to increase annual per capita seafood consumption from currently 21.5 kg to about 24-25 kg.

The key is to promote and educate -- despite investments in the cold chain, Guminskiy said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 12.03. p.m. G.M.T.

Uhrenholt snaps up Olympic contract

Shrimp supplier Uhrenholt has been chosen by the organizing committee of the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014 to be the sole logistics supplier of food, Georgiy Guminskiy, seafood project manager at Uhrenholt Russia, revealed during his presentation at the ICWPF in London.

"That's our breaking news," he said.

The company, which reports a turnover of about $180 million in the region, has recently invested "a lot of money" in logistical centers and a new cold store facility, Guminskiy said.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 11.58 a.m. G.M.T.

Making sure the wheels don’t fall off the bus, again

Pacific Seafoods has got itself back on track following the ‘perfect storm’ that hit the coldwater shrimp market on the west coast of the United States in the late 90s.

“The wheels fell off the bus in the WOC (Washington, Oregon, California) shrimp fishery in the late 1990s/early 2000s,” Charles Kirschbaum, shrimp and crab product category manager for the Pacific Seafood Group told the ICWPF in London, Thursday.

There were three main factors that hit the industry, he said, firstly the natural warmwater event known as El Nino hit stocks, while there was also a boom in aquaculture shrimp over the period which introduced new competition.

Meanwhile there was also an increased supply of shrimp from Canada, resulting in a “perfect storm.”

“They were tough times in the early 2000s,” Kirschbaum said, and the industry on the West Coast of the US shrank significantly as a result. In March 1995 there were 78 peelers, 22 plants, and 13 companies operating in the sector.

This has dropped to 20 peelers, seven plants and three companies operating today.

Despite the obvious challenges, however, Pacific Seafood Group decided to stay in the market, Kirschbaum said, and has put in place a strategy to ensure the wheels don’t fall off the bus again.

Since 2000 the group has invested “several million dollars” in increasing the overall quality of its shrimp, as well as matching or “beating” its competitors to gain market share, and boosting its marketing.

For the future, the group plans to continue to invest in plants, freezing technology, peeling technology, marketing and packaging technology, and also intends to build or capitalize on its status as the first MSC certified cold water shrimp fishery.

And things are paying off, Kirschbaum said.

Since 2009 Pacific Seafood Group sales in the United States, outside the traditional west coast market, have increase annually to 2 million pounds, said Kirschbaum.

“These are new markets with repeat business, and the projections are to continue in this growth trend,” he said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 11.35 a.m. G.M.T.

Differentiation, once again

So far, the US market has not used coldwater shrimp as a substitute for the struggling warmwater shrimp supply -- despite huge increases in prices for farmed shrimp, John Sackton told the audience at ICWPF in London.

"Consumers have not shown more interest in coldwater shrimp," he said. The reason lies in the history, as coldwater shrimp have lost in differentiation when global supply contracted in the mid-80s.

Back then, "distributors substituted coldwater shrimp with Asian salad shrimp, they had to convince their customers to switch over," he said. "They washed away the market differentiation between coldwater and warmwater shrimp."

The future of coldwater shrimp in the United States will depend once more on product differentiation, he said, and with current high prices this could come back, as the farmed shrimp sector will continue to face supply and price challenges, he predicted.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 11. 26 a.m. G.M.T.

Higher prices? No promotions

Retail shrimp promotions in the United States are running at about 16 percent below compared to a year ago, and this is expected to continue into the holiday season.

"We predict we will see a significant downturn this holiday," John Sackton, industry consultant and seafood journalist, said.

Retailers have started passing on price increases to consumers, up from about $6 to about $8. This will continue into next year, he said, with both retailers and suppliers accepting lower demand and sales volumes.

At the same time, supermarkets have started promoting smaller sizes of cooked shrimp, for both coldwater and warmwater.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 11.14 a.m. G.M.T.

Shrimp fisheries 'single-most important fisheries resource in Greenland'

Greenland’s shrimp exporters have been boosted by the Western Greenlandic MSC certification, according to Karl Lyberth, the Greenlandic minister for fishery.

“I have received multiple positive reactions from the Greenlandic export companies. That is a source of great joy for me, since export of shrimp amounts to a very significant share of the collective Greenlandic export earnings,” he said.

“Much further than that of Canada, which is also a significant player on the international market for coldwater prawns.”

According to Lyberth, it is commonly known that shrimp fisheries are “the single-most important fisheries resource in Greenland,” and yield the greatest amount in exports.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 11.10 a.m. G.M.T.

Shrimp no longer has any significant status among consumers

Speaking to the ICWPF in London Thursday, Karl Lyberth, the Greenlandic minister for fishery, told delegates shrimp no longer has any significant status among consumers, and are often subject to be offered as loss leaders in the super market chains.

“In this instance we from Greenland desire a strengthening of status of profile and market for the wild cold water prawn, since we of course are of the opinion that this product is unique and deserve a special position in the market, hence acquire a favorable price in the market,” he said.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 11.06 a.m. G.M.T.

Transferable quotas bring 'sweeping changes' to Greenland

The introduction of individual and transferable quotas has brought "sweeping changes" to the fleet structure, company structure and economy of the shrimp industry in Greenland, according to Karl Lyberth, the Greenlandic minister for fishery.

The shrimp TAC in the waters off Western Greenland used to be distributed between sea-going fishing, where each vessel had an individual one-year, non-transferable quota, and near-shore fishing, which had a total quota used in so-called “Olympic fishing”.

In addition, quotas were allocated to foreign vessels according to agreements made between Greenland/Denmark and the nations concerned.

This was the system used in off-shore shrimp fishing until 1990 and until 1996 in in-shore fishing, when individual and transferable quotas were introduced.

“The introduction of this quota system brought sweeping changes in the fleet structure, company structure and economy of the shrimp industry,” said Lyberth.

In off-shore fishery, Greenland went from 46 shrimp trawlers in 1990 to about 8 shrimp trawlers in 2013. In the coastal fishery, the country went from more than 100 shrimp trawlers in the mid-1990s to some 70 vessels in 2001 and about 30 coastal-based shrimp vessels today.

Meanwhile,shrimp stocks in Western Greenland, which for a number of years were on a steady increase, are now seeing a “significant decline,” Lyberth said.

Catches have dropped from 130,000 metric tons in 2007 to 80,000 metric tons in 2013, he said.

However, in Eastern Greenland the recommendation until 2013 has been on a stable 12,400 tons for a number of years.

“There is no doubt that the system with individual and transferable quotas has demonstrated its value,” said Lyberth.

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 10.25 a.m. G.M.T.

Time to look at Russia?

The global climate change will undoubtedly have an effect on the marine habitats in the world's oceans -- and coldwater shrimp are no exception, Paul Wassmann of the University of Tromso said.

Based on prediction models on primary production outlooks connected to coldwater shrimp production developments in the Arctic Ocean, Wassmann predicted there could be winners and losers.

While primary production is set to drop in the Norwegian Sea, in Svalbard, Jan Mayen and in the East Greenlandic, the Russian zone could see an increase in production levels in the decades to come, he said.

"Russia may be the big winner," he said. "It might be useful to look into access into Russian territorial water and or quotas."

Or one might consider to invest into the Russian fleet, he said.

As Arctic Ocean temperatures are predicted to increase by 6 to 10 percent by the end of this century, three commercial species could see an increase in production: Polar cod, shrimp and scallops.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 9.54 a.m. G.M.T.

It’s going to hell!

There is only one conclusion to be drawn from the current status of coldwater shrimp stocks and that is “it is going to hell... or at least to heck,” according Michaela Aschan, a professor at the Norwegian College of Fishery Science.

Speaking at the International Coldwater Prawn Forum in London Thursday, Aschan said the world’s coldwater shrimp stocks are declining.

Estimated catches in the North Atlantic for 2013 are expected to be around 283,000 metric tons, she said, dropping to 247,000 metric tons in 2014.

The drop in catch is down to a number of factors, Aschan explained, including larger and expanding cod stocks – which eat the shrimp – and an increasing overlap between cod and shrimp as distribution areas change. The sea temperature also plays a part as it instigates early hatching, faster development, but this also means an increased mortality rate.

In the North Sea, catches have been on the decline since 2005. In 2013, total catch is expected to reach 7,771 metric tons, but in 2014 the advised TAC will reduce to 5,426 metric tons.

In the Barents Sea the quota is 60,000 metric tons but the estimated catches for 2013/14 is expected to be closer to 10,000 metric tons.

In Iceland, catches are expected to decrease from roughly 7,000 metric tons in 2013, to 5,000 metric tons next year.

In the Denmark Strait catches are to decline to around 2,000 metric tons in 2014, despite low fishing mortality, while in the Davis Strait catches are expected to drop from 102,000 metric tons in 2013 to 80,000 metric tons in 2014.

Northern Canada, in particular the Newfoundland/Labrador region, is the part of the North Atlantic which has the most stability and the largest stock of coldwater shrimp. Although this has still dropped from a peak of 200,000 metric tons at most in around 2007 to 140,000 metric tons today.

The stable resource in this area is probably due to the lack of cod, although numbers [of cod] are increasing, Aschan said.  

-- Dominic Welling


Nov. 21, 8.57 a.m. G.M.T.

A little creature called coldwater shrimp

Simon Jarding of Royal Greenland, kicked off the conference this morning. After welcoming delegates, speakers and guests of honors, he said "all our jobs rely on this little creature."

The ICWPF is known for making interesting predictions, which often come true, he said, "so I'm quite excited what predictions we're taking home today."

High on the agenda will be the challenges for cooked and peeled, as well as shell-on, triggered by quota decline and sluggish market demand. He also mentioned the recently signed free-trade deal between the EU and Canada -- something the industry can actually look forward to, he said.

Let the talks begin!

-- Elisabeth Fischer


Nov. 21, 8.15 a.m. G.M.T.

Coldwater shrimp industry gathers in London

The International Coldwater Prawn Forum (ICWPF) is inviting the global shrimp industry to a new edition of its biannual conference, this time taking place in London, United Kingdom.

More than 160 delegates are expected to attend today's conference, which will focus on the latest development in the important UK market, both foodservice and consumer market.

"News from emerging markets and the positive health effects of coldwater prawns will also be central part of the conference topics. At the conference new research from UK seafood trade group Seafish, in cooperation with ICWPF, will be published," Simon Jarding of Royal Greenland, and chairman of ICWPF, told IntraFish earlier this year.

Karen Galloway, head of marketing at Seafish will be presenting the findings of a latest market research study, which examines consumers perceptions of coldwater shrimp in the context of how they prepare and consume them.

The high interest for the conference this year shows the coldwater shrimp industry is at a stage where a repositioning in the market place is happening, Jarding said.

"From my point of view the coldwater shrimp is back on the track and will play an important role in the market for seafood the coming years," he said.

The event is taking place at the Radisson Blu Portman Hotel, Portman Square, London. Can't attend? Check back here for all the news.

-- Elisabeth Fischer


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